An architectural structure made of Tash-Rabat stone, known in the scientific literature of the Soviet period as a caravanserai of the 15th century. is considered an archaeological monument of the semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Kyrgyz. And although many works are devoted to this structure, scientists up to the present day cannot determine the cause of its occurrence and functions. Ch.Ch. Valikhanov, V.V. Bartold and A.M. Fetisov, speaking about the monument, used the word “rabat”, which is translated from the Turkic language as caravanserai. However, pundits believe that the researchers used a generally accepted definition that constitutes the name of the monument.
Tash-Rabat is located in the At-Bashinsky district of the Naryn region near the border with China. The facility is located on the bank of the meandering Tash-Rabat river, a tributary of the Kara-Koyun river, at an altitude of more than 3500 m above sea level. Here, in the valley of the Kara-Koyun River, there was an ancient caravan route connecting Semirechye and Fergana with Kashgar. The political and commercial significance of this road was noted for the 2nd-1st centuries. BC e. and in the 1st-2nd centuries. n. era, then it cedes its role to the northern route.
It is believed that Tash-Rabat was a key point when crossing the Tien Shan, as it not only provided a refuge for merchants, but also served as a fortification during the raids of robbers.
Tash-Rabat was considered by the nomads as an “undoubted miracle” who attributed to it “supernatural” properties. The unusual appearance of the building gave rise to many legends among the surrounding population. The belief, recorded by Ch. Ch. Valikhanov, A. Voitsekhovich and VK Zmievsky, that the number of rooms in a building changes with each new account, which still exists today. Folk legends recorded by travelers associate its construction with various names and events and, as noted by N.L. Zeland, are implausible and contradictory.